Tech Soft 3D Blog

Do you Zip files? You should 3D PDF them instead for better, structured communication. Listen to the new Beyond 3D Podcast!

Posted by Dave Opsahl on Jan 31, 2017 3:17:30 PM

There are millions of 3D PDFs used in different manufacturing workflows every day, across the globe.  So why are there still so many misconceptions about how 3D PDFs can be used? How versatile they are, how much better they are than Zipping a ton files together and hoping the recipient can figure out how to view them all. The 3D PDF Consortium was founded for exactly this purpose – to provide education and awareness to the market about 3D PDFs.  We talk with Jerry McFeeters, the Executive Director, and Phil Spreier, Technical Director to dispel some of the bigger myths when it comes to 3D PDF creation and use.

“I always think about PDF as kind of being data with a purpose, or data with a context. You can use it in an engineering process. You can create a document that has a bunch of different data that when you put it all together, it helps to describe something in a way that it's very clear and relevant to the person who gets that document. That's when it helps to set it apart from some of these other data formats, is that it really is easy to communicate with a purpose what you want to do with that 3D data rather than just communicating with the 3D data itself.” – Jerry McFeeters

“When you compare the PDF to a Zip file, it has some even more advantages because one of the things that a PDF file does, is it gives you structure. PDFs can have attachments to it, just like so you can put multiple files in it exactly like a Zip file. PDF files are all compressed too. There's a bunch of different levels of compression that you use on a PDF file. They tend to be very compact, and that includes the 3D data. 3D data, both the data formats can be used in a PDF, a 3D PDF are very compact. The PRC also has a compression rate of up to 100 times smaller than a native CAD file. It zips things together very well, but unlike a Zip file, it also gives you some structure to that. You can put things in a tree structure inside your PDF file. You can attach it the data to those, you can hyperlink spots inside those data files when you open them. You can open them using JavaScript.

You can do a number of different things so that when you get a PDF file that has a bunch of attachments, you can put information about what those attachments are, and easily associate them with other parts of your documents. Now you're not getting a bunch of disparate files that are in a directory structure. You're getting just a Zip file of associated documents, and you know what each document is and how it relates to the other documents, or the other data in your PDF file. That's a real advantage. A Zip file works great, but if you have a bunch of data that's associated, putting it into a PDF file gives you a way to express that association in a very easily understandable way so that when you send it somebody, they immediately know what it is and what it's used for.” – Phil Spreier

Have a listen and let us know what you think. 

For more information on Tech Soft 3D, visit www.techsoft3d.com

For more information on the 3D PDF Consortium, visit www.3dpdfconsortium.org/

Link to presentation on how Boeing uses 3D PDF for Technical Data Packages: www.3dpdfconsortium.org/Boeing-Communicating-a-New-Way-of-Doing-Business

read-transcript.png

Angela Simoes:

Welcome everybody, to Beyond 3D. We're very happy to have you. This is our first episode of 2017. Happy New Year. We're excited to have a couple people from 3D PDF Consortium here. The experts when it comes to 3D PDF. I'd just like to introduce Jerry McFeeters, Executive Director of the 3D PDF Consortium, and Phil Spreier, Technical Director for the 3D PDF Consortium. Welcome, Jerry and Phil.

Jerry Spreier:

Hi, how are you?

Angela:

Good, thanks. Happy New Year.

Jerry:

Hey, same to you.

Angela:

And from Tech Soft 3D, we have Dave Opsahl Vice President of Corporate Development. Hey, Dave. Welcome back.

Dave Opsahl:

Thanks, Angela. Happy New Year to you, too.

Angela:

Thank you. I think a lot of people have ... We've been talking about 3D PDF for a while now. I think a lot of people have heard of it, and probably have even heard of the 3D PDF Consortium, but there's always questions, right? Why don't you start by giving us a little bit of background on yourselves, and then also how and why the 3D PDF Consortium got started?

Jerry:

Okay, yeah, this is Jerry. My background is, I have an engineering background. In about 1979, a long long time ago, I was talking to a friend. He said he worked for a company called Computer Vision, and I had no idea what that was. He decided to show me that, and I was blown away by what Computer Vision could do back then. Eventually, I got hooked on it, and so I was involved in CAD and doing 3D CAD work back in the 80's, and actually continued that all the way until up about 2005 or so.

 

That's my background on how I got involved there, and in terms of the Consortium itself, it was formed in 2012 and I came on board a couple years after that. It filled a void that was left when Adobe, who initiated the concept of 3D PDF, they decided that it wasn't their bag, so to speak. They decided they wanted to migrate the 3D part out to other people who were probably more involved with the 3D environment; engineers and firms that worked in that environment.

 

Several companies were involved, and it made sense to ... They got started, Dave probably knows more about this than I do, but they got started because it felt like they had to have a way to communicate with each other on the important things that needed to be done with 3D PDF. They got together and decided to form a consortium and of course, like I said earlier, it became a consortium in 2012.

Angela:

Okay. Do you have a specific mission purpose, I'm guessing maybe around education and awareness of 3D PDF?

Jerry:

Right. There are three basic areas. One of the important ones is standards. There are ISO standards for Adobe products and PDF already, but there wasn't one associated with 3D engineering types and standards. That was one of the primary reasons for having the consortium, and one of the missions of the consortium was for standards. A lot of people were using PDF files back then for their 2D drawings, if you will, and documents, that when 3D came out, not very many people were aware that that capability existed. That was another major component of the mission, is to educate people on the power and the capabilities of being able to view a 3D CAD model, if you will, in a PDF environment because a lot of companies were already using a PDF environment for sending secure documents throughout their enterprises.

 

Education, standards, and then one of the other missions that came about is an implementer form. What the implementer form is, it's kind of like a testing, a validation of how well different CAD formats play with each other. There was a exercise put together by standard parts where you go from typically, historically what was done, you go from one CAD system into another CAD system-

Angela:

Right.

Jerry:

And see if everything came out like it originated. PDF is a little bit different because we don't go from a CAD system into 3D PDF, and then back out to a CAD system. Because it's more of a documentation format, there's no real need to go back into other CAD systems, although, I think Phil could answer this better than I can. I think the capability does exist, but it's typically not used very much.

Angela:

Right, I think we're actually going to get in to that question too about how it's actually different, it's not a CAD format. It's a documentation format, right? I think that's a misconception we'll address, but before we get there, let's just hear quickly from Phil and a little bit about your background, Phil.

Phil:

Hi. I've been involved in the mechanical CAD industry for about 25 years now. I've had the expertise, or a past involvement with 3D solve modeling and data translators. About six years ago, I became involved with 3D PDF while I was working with Tech Soft 3D, and I moved on to work with the 3D PDF Consortium about four years ago. I've been Technical Director with Consortiums since then. I work with all the Consortium members on our technical programs, and I'm also the ISO member to the technical committee and working groups for the PDF ISO effort. I represent 3D PDF Consortium with all those events, all those meetings that we have as we go ahead and work to advance the standards forwards.

Angela:

Excellent. Okay, so let's go back to what Jerry was talking about. You hear so many, I think, misconceptions, and things like that, but one thing that I think people don't realize is exactly what you were saying, Jerry, is that it's a documentation format, not an engineering file format. Let's dig into that a little bit more and talk about, how is 3D PDF different than other engineering file formats or data files?

Jerry:

Well, I think one of the easiest ways to describe it that hasn't already been described, is essentially a PDF file within which CAD data has been imported to be able to visualize what those CAD models are and all the information; META data and the PI information, about those CAD models is contained within a PDF environment. By virtue of having a 3D model inside of a PDF environment, it becomes a 3D PDF file. There's nothing other than that ... It really is a PDF file.

Phil:

When I think about the CAD data formats that are traditionally used in CAD and I think about PDF, I find them to be quite different. The traditional CAD data formats were there to represent just basically a bunch of data without the context for that data. You would need an application to read that specific data. Let's say you have a DWG file. It has a bunch of information from a CAD system, AutoCAD, but you actually have to have that format in order to read that. It doesn't really have structure to it.

 

When you look at a PDF file, PDFs are designed to represent a document. It stands for a portable document format. So what it does is it gives you context for your data. It puts it in a readable format, you can add text and other things to it. It gives you the 3D data and presents that in a way that you can add the information to that 3D data as well. It presents it to the user in a way that you can have user interface and user interaction to actually add the 3D in it.

 

When you put the 3D data in a PDF file, what you get is this rich document that's really meant to communicate a specific function, or a specific process, or a specific workflow. It does it all in the document format. When you get data, you tend to just ... If you get a bunch of information that can describe, let's say a volume or a part, or things like that, but not necessarily the context about what the author is trying to communicate to you when he created the document.

 

I always think about PDF as kind of being data with a purpose, or data with a context. You can use it in an engineering process. You can create a document that has a bunch of different data that when you put it all together, it helps to describe something in a way that it's very clear and relevant to the person who gets that document. That's when it helps to set it apart from some of these other data formats, is that it really is easy to communicate with a purpose what you want to do with that 3D data rather than just communicating the 3D data itself.

Angela:

Okay, so it's very clearly different. Why do you think that there's still this maybe confusion or misconception that it's 3D PDF or STEP, or some other data file. Why do you think there's this impression that it's an either or, when really it should be both, right? You can put the data file inside the 3D PDF as well as a lot of other things, right? Why do you think there's a disconnect?

Phil:

Well, I think that's mostly just a historical point of view because in the CAD data that we are used to dealing with, it was just these data files without the other information that came with it. They tend to be controlled by a specific vendor, so you have vendor specific formats that get sent. Those are not really all that inclusive. They tend to be bit of a non-inclusive environment where they have all the data that could be represented as a particular vendor's format. Then when you have STEPs and other formats, those also tend to get developed with specific purposes in mind. They tend to be developed by one specific group and who looks at a set of workflows and develops a set of data for that.

 

They're not ... Don't look around so much at whether the other formats can view and whether you can use different parts of those or whatnot, because it's very difficult to make a data format that can represent data from other systems in addition to the data that it knows about. STEP tries to do that by introducing a common data model, and it's very good at doing that, but it doesn't have a the ability to represent things such as, let's say audio, or other types of document data because it's not specifically what it's been tasked to do.

 

When you look at PDF, it started as a format that was meant to represent multiple other formats. Its life kind of started different. It wasn't started as a 3D format that was designed to describe 3D data, it was designed to do document format. It was designed to describe print data, and that was expanded to add audio, video, form data, all these other rich data sets that were added to it to make it a more advanced document language. The final one that got added to it has been the 3D. It started life as a document that you added 3D to.

 

The other data format started as a 3D data format that you may add other data to it to make it more document-like, but it always started with that 3D. Its purpose was just to describe shape, and then to be used to describe engineering data that you could use with other applications. PDF started its life as a document. It was meant to be given to somebody, it was meant to be interpreted by that person, so it really has a different life history. I think that that's the difference between them. In engineering we're used to dealing with the data formats, but never really so much the document formats. Adding 3D to a document format is what made PDF unique.

Angela:

Dave, let's bring you into the conversation. Is some of this similar to what you hear when you're talking to customers or engaging with partners, or even new customers, about giving PDF a try? Like, oh, I'm already using ... We've got our data file formats and this is how we use them.

Dave:

Yeah.

Angela:

Is some of this resonating?

Dave:

Absolutely. One of the things that we do is talk to software developers, which is Tech Soft's primary business, about how they can implement the capability to produce these PDF files out of their application. Going to the question of why is adoption not ubiquitous? It certainly has accelerated, and there's a lot of it out there. It's increasing all the time, but the questions we get from the software developers are a little different, and they usually revolve around technical issues, but their decisions to implement it tend to be driven by customer demand. There's sort of a symbiotic relationship between what Phil's been talking about, and the conversations that we have.

 

People need to understand what it can do before they tell their application developers that they would like to see this capability in the applications that they're licensing. We're starting to see more and more of that, where people are contacting us and saying, "My customers are telling me I'd like to have this. I need to understand more about it." Part of what we do is educate the software developers why it is that the customers like it. They're very similar, they're just driven from different directions.

Angela:

Right. Jerry, anything additional you'd like to say on that?

Jerry:

Well, I just wanted ... In my mind, I think of the CAD vendors providing authoring tools. That's great, and they need to have that out there in the world of what's taking place on the enterprises, but it gets confusing when you try to pass that information off to other people that may not have a CAD system. Also, you may want to get information out to people and you don't want to be editing any of those files. You don't want to have a editing or authoring capability within a document format. You just want people to be able to, at least the geometry, you don't want them editing the geometry.

 

I think PDF does serve a valuable purpose in that you can view it, you can query, you can measure, but you can't change it. That adds a lot of value, and it does take a while for companies and organizations to understand the capabilities and the ability to add a lot of contextual information like Phil was talking about. That's pretty much what I can add to it.

Angela:

Okay. The word context I think is important to focus on also, right? Another misconception we can talk about is how some people will say, "Well, I'll just zip all this stuff together and send it over to whoever needs to view it." There's no context there, so the person opens the Zip file, which was have they viewed first? What if they don't have the right program to view? Maybe Phil or Jerry, if you want to maybe talk about why 3D PDF is such a great alternative to zipping things. Not to say that Zip isn't a good technology, because we all use it for lots of different things. In this particular situation, what are the advantages of using a 3D PDF instead of Zip?

Jerry:

One example came up about a month ago. I was told about ... Somebody had put together a sophisticated CAD model. They were putting together NC capabilities on that CAD model. They wanted to send it out to another organization, and normally they would wait until everything's completed and send it out to whoever is going to be using that information. Well, what happened, they decided to go ahead and send the 3D PDF file out to them ahead of time just to see if they could open it up and see if they needed any training in using it.

 

Well, when the customer received it, they didn't even call back. They just opened it up and started looking at it, and when they were viewing the geometry that was in the 3D PDF file, they recognized because the way a flange was situated, the proposed tool path that they were going to use over it was not valid, and they were able to send that back to the engineers to re-engineer part of that. They did that before they got too far down the process where it gets really expensive. I think that that very brief anecdote points out a lot of the features and benefits of using PDF. It gives a person without any training, essentially, the ability to visualize what this 3D model is designed to do.

 

It has contextual information in that sense, but also the details of how the different components of it fit together, what they look like, and also the end user can query the types of materials that each of the components is made of. Whatever information was put into the original CAD model, is reflected in the 3D PDF file that you're viewing, that same model and once it's been pulled in. It's very rich, it's very fast, and it's easy to open. That's another component of the whole process where it really has an advantage because you don't have to have a separate viewer for the CAD system, for example.

 

That's particularly important in, let's say in marketing areas, if somebody wants to use a CAD model for marketing purposes. They don't have the CAD model themselves, but they can certainly look at a PDF file, 3D PDF file, and they can situate it, they can make some, essentially cut some sections in it. They can visualize what drawings, look in at different views, and they can say, "Wow, okay, this is the kind of thing that we want to do." They can change the appearance of it. They can do all the things that's really difficult to do in the past.

Phil:

Yeah, and when you compare the PDF to a Zip file, it has some even more advantages because one of the things that a PDF file does, is it gives you structure. PDFs can have attachments to it, just like so you can put multiple files in it exactly like a Zip file. PDF files are all compressed too. There's a bunch of different levels of compression that you use on a PDF file. They tend to be very compact, and that includes the 3D data. 3D data, both the data formats can be used in a PDF, a 3D PDF are very compact. The PRC also has a compression rate of up to 100 times smaller than a native CAD file. It zips things together very well, but unlike a Zip file, it also gives you some structure to that. You can put things in a tree structure inside your PDF file. You can attach it the data to those, you can hyperlink spots inside those data files when you open them. You can open them using JavaScript.

 

You can do a number of different things so that when you get a PDF file that has a bunch of attachments, you can put information about what those attachments are, and easily associate them with other parts of your documents. Now you're not getting a bunch of disparate files that are in a directory structure. You're getting just a Zip file of associated documents, and you know what each document is and how it relates to the other documents, or the other data in your PDF file. That's a real advantage. A Zip file works great, but if you have a bunch of data that's associated, putting it into a PDF file gives you a way to express that association in a very easily understandable way so that when you send it somebody, they immediately know what it is and what it's used for.

Angela:

Yeah, I mean it's an excellent point. I can speak from experience on the PR side, not trained as an engineer or even trained in any CAD software, but when receiving files that we would need to use in press releases or other PR marketing material. It's kind of a challenge, right? To be on the receiving end and figure out, okay, what do I do with this? How do I ... What am I looking at? Which is the best angle to show? That sort of thing. Having that CAD model in a 3D PDF versus trying to download a viewer and trying to figure out how to use it? I know that would have been phenomenal to have at the time. I didn't, so when I started working with Tech Soft, I was kind of like, "I wish I had known about 3D PDF a long time ago. It would have made my life a lot easier."

 

To that point, why do you think that there's still not more awareness or more usage of 3D PDF? Do you think it's because people think of PDF as an old technology? Or it's just kind of one of those things where you just have to just keep promoting and promoting and promoting to spread the word?

Jerry:

Well, this is Jerry. When I came on board a little over a year ago, I think it was. I didn't really have an idea of how much 3D PDF was being used, but as I started talking to people, I found out that it's really being used quite a bit.

Angela:

Okay.

Jerry:

Probably one of the most compelling pieces of information came from a presentation from Boeing, where they were talking about using 3D PDF to send out their technical data packages. They described the process, they had automated the process. TDPs, technical data packages, consisted of a STEP model, because a lot of times they want to send the STEP model because a lot of companies, a lot of vendors on the other side need to get that data into a different CAD system. STEP does an excellent job of doing that, like Phil was pointing about earlier.

 

In addition to that, they put a lot of other information that's relevant to the work that's going to be done at the other end. They have it available for their customers, and one of the metrics that blew me away is the number of downloads that occur per week. The number was in excess of 75,000.

Angela:

Wow.

Jerry:

PDF files.

Angela:

Wow.

Jerry:

Downloaded from their website. That was probably a year ago, that information. I'm sure it's increased by now, or since then. I got a better appreciation of how much it's actually being used. One of the challenges that we face is, there are different ways of creating those PDF files depending on the intended use. We need to educate the users of 3D PDF, and actually the creators, the ones who say, "Okay, I'll put this to a 3D PDF file." We need to educate them on some of the parameters that they can adjust if size is an issue, if size of file is an issue. Adjustments can be made. If precision and accuracy is an issue, there's adjustments that can be made to make it as practically, as accurate as you need any 3D PDF file to be.

 

Those are some of the challenges that we're facing, and they happen to see more and more of that. We need to get more involved in projects where 3D PDF is being used. We were at the Defense Manufacturing Conference last month at the end of November, and I talked to some folks who are involved with the National Center for Machine and Manufacturing. They were describing some of the problems that they were having in getting information through their projects.

 

I started talking to them, one of the project managers, about using 3D PDF. They said, "That can do that? You can actually visualize the model?" They had no clue, and before the discussion was over, there was a desire to swap memberships because they thought they could really use something like that in their environment. I think a lot of times, companies get caught in the technical weeds, and they don't realize the items that are out there that they can take advantage of at a very low cost. I think it's still going to be an education process, but a lot is being used a lot more than I thought before.

Dave:

Yeah, this is Dave. I'd like to just add to that. One of the things we've seen probably more over the last year than any time before, is just with a line of products that Tech Soft has, that is designed for small business called our Tetra 4D product line, we've had more people call up and ask to have a conversation about taking 50, 60, 70 people, and equipping them with the ability to create these documents. Most of these companies have a few hundred people to maybe 1,000 people, which is in that classic small business definition.

 

It never ceases to amaze me, there was one just the other day where somebody was looking for 100 people that they wanted to equip to do something like this. The small companies, I think, have really embraced using this, and that's part of the reason you don't see it so much, is because they're consuming it internally. They're doing it for their own purposes, and unless they hit the six o'clock news, or some industry publication, you'd never know it's out there.

Angela:

Right. I'm curious of those 100 people that they want to be able to use it. Are they telling you what their roles are? Are they all engineers, or are they people in marketing, people in finance, for whatever reason? I don't know.

Dave:

Yeah, it's part of the conversation, but I'm usually not in those conversations, so I can't give you any sort of direct information. The tendency anecdotally seems to be not so much on the marketing side of things, but a lot more on communicating with outside vendors in a lot of cases. Or communicating with another part within the organization, like engineering trying to give something to manufacturing. As Phil mentioned, that was workflow specific for what they were trying to do. Not so much on the marketing side.

Angela:

Okay, that's fair. We're coming up on the end of our time, so just a couple more things. Are there other benefits of 3D PDF that we haven't covered that people should know about that you want to mention? Jerry or Phil?

Jerry:

Yeah, Phil, do you have any comments?

Phil:

Yeah, well one thing that we didn't touch on and that it's really good for, certainly, is documenting and archiving engineering data. One of the things about engineering data, and data in particular, is it has had a life span which needs keep it around for. We see a lot of new technologies they're working on, how you can better collaborate in real time. Those are great, you can do that with 3D PDF as well. You can do real time collaboration or email collaboration, or the other types of things that you want to do with it.

 

After the collaboration is done, you also need to document something so you can have it. Either you can write a contract against it, or use to regulatory, or any other type of a process, and 3D PDF is really a great way to do that because it's an ISO standard, so you'll be able to read it and write it forever. You know exactly what data is in it. All parts of it are becoming ISO standard, so that there won't be any part of it that won't be proprietary, or you won't be able to have access to it. Then the fact that you can use it with the Reader or other products, in order to use it. It really gives it a long life span, so documents that you need to have around, that need to be complete, you can't have missing pieces of, PDF is a great thing for that. Not just for just moving data around and communicating with it, but also making sure that it's around tomorrow or the next 10 to 20, or even 50 years.

Jerry:

This is Jerry. I'd like to also add that I worked for Navy for about six years, and during that time period we had a need to develop templates, and I realized that 3D PDF really lends itself to that. We did some research, and templates on inspection of waterfronts, and it worked out as a great tool. You have a 3D representation of the waterfront, and be able to have it already set up in a model, and put information about the current status, of the condition of the piers, all the different components of the waterfronts. I don't think people realize how easy it is to customize it for specific purposes within a company, or an organization.

Angela:

Well, I think those are two really important benefits to mention. With archiving, it reminds me of, let's say if somebody's looking at a very old blueprint of something that's actually no longer workable because it's just such an old file format, or it's just paper and you can't really do anything with it. Whereas if it was in a 3D PDF, it's archived, like you said, 50 years from now, it's something that you can much more easily work with. I think that's a great point. Dave, any other points you wanted to add in about 3D PDF and benefits that we haven't covered?

Dave:

No, I think Jerry and Phil pretty much covered it. We talked a little bit just about the ease at which adopting this fits into any organization strategy because they know how they handle documents. Whatever solution, whatever process they use, this just drops right in. Adoption is low risk and low cost, and those are two things most companies try to find whenever they can. Yeah, it's great stuff.

Angela:

Yeah, I think we covered a lot of that as far as ease of adoption with Dave Ewing on a previous podcast. Our listeners, if you haven't heard that episode with Dave Ewing, I encourage you to go listen to that one because he talks a lot about how he was able to take it from a small group and now it's being used widely within his organization. That happened quite easily and very affordably. I know that was a great episode. Our last thing, Jerry and Phil, is an audience challenge. What is the one thing that you would like our audience to do after listening to this podcast?

Jerry:

Well, I think they would really gain a lot of information by visiting our website at 3dpdfconsortium.org, and look at the case studies that are there and download one of those. Just so they can get an idea of what 3D PDF can do. While you're there, there's a pull down about presentations, and there's one about Boeing. A person, I think, would get a lot to see what Boeing has been doing with 3D PDF. It's a good education process to see how it's being used.

Phil:

Once you download it, make sure that you try the different parts of the PDF. You can put a comment on it and create a view, and send that to somebody, or measure it or take a look at the tool sets that are available in the reader, and then view the other products that you can use. You'll see that they're really powerful tools. They really help to communicate that 3D intent that you can use in your workflows or in your daily work to communicate with people who may not have a seat of CAD.

Angela:

Excellent. Once they are convinced after looking at your website, they can go over to Tech Soft 3D and look at the Tetra line of products, and give it a try to start creating their own 3D PDFs.

Dave:

That's right.

Angela:

We'll include the links to all of those sites and presentations, so make things really easy for our listeners to access that information. Thank you, Jerry and Phil, for being here today with us. It was really great information, and clarifying some misconceptions about 3D PDF for our listeners. Thanks for being here with us today.

Jerry:

You're welcome, thank you.

Phil:

Thank you.

Angela:

Thanks again, Dave. Your insight's always really helpful, and we appreciate your time.

 

Dave:

Always a pleasure.

Angela:

For our listeners, thank you again for joining us on another episode of Beyond 3D. If you haven't hit that subscribe button, please do so now, and share with some friends, colleagues, anybody you think would be interested in hearing a little bit more about 3D PDF and might find the information helpful. With that, we'll say have a great day. Hope 2017 is going well for everybody so far, and until next time, you'll find us here on Beyond 3D.

Topics: 3D PDF